Assessment of maize leaf indicators under water reduction levels: Impact of polymer, charcoal, and antiperspirant treatments


Citation :- Assessment of maize leaf indicators under water reduction levels: Impact of polymer, charcoal, and antiperspirant treatments . Res. Crop. 25: 263-268
FATIMA E. ALDAINY AND BASHEER A. ABRAHEEM Basher.abd@coagri.uobaghdad.edu.iq
Address : Department of Field Crops Sciences, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
Submitted Date : 19-04-2024
Accepted Date : 30-05-2024


Water scarcity, exacerbated by climate change and international conflicts, poses significant challenges to maize production. Research has shown that interventions like plant charcoal, superabsorbent polymers, and anti-transpiration agents can mitigate water stress effects, enhancing maize growth indicators. Therefore, the experiment was conducted in the fields of the Department of Field Crops, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, in the spring season of 2022. The aim of the experiment was to increase the growth indicators of maize leaves exposed to water reduction levels using polymer, charcoal, and antiperspirant. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. The main plots were occupied by water reduction levels (0, 25 and 50%), while the subplots were occupied by the additives: sodium acrylate, biochar, antiperspirant, charcoal + antiperspirant, acrylate + antiperspirant, acrylate + charcoal + antiperspirant, and control. The charcoal treatment was able to join the binary and ternary treatments to give a significant increase over the other treatments in the number of leaves. In the weight of leaves, the acrylate + antiperspirant treatment was behind them, and they remained significantly superior. There was no significant difference observed among treatments in leaf area. However, the antiperspirant treatment exhibited the lowest percentage of leaf water loss, significantly differing from all other treatments. Additionally, the antiperspirant treatment consistently demonstrated the highest relative water content across all treatments in which it was applied, a trend similar to charcoal treatments. As for the interaction between the two factors of the study, it appeared that there was no significant difference in the charcoal + antiperspirant treatment at the levels of 0 and 25%, but the decrease became significant at the level of 50%.


Antiperspirant charcoal maize polymer sodium polyacrylate


Abdulameer, O. Q. and S. A. Ahmed. (2019). Role of humic acid in improving growth characters of corn under water stress. The Iraqi J. Agric. Sci. 50: 420-30.
Abraheem, B. A. (2017). Effect of gelatin anti-transpiration in some growth and yield characteristics of wheat under water stress. The Iraqi J. Agric. Sci. 6: 1634-643.
Alkharabsheh, Hiba, M., Mahmoud, F., Seleiman, Martin Leonardo Battaglia., Ashwag Shami., Rewaa, S., Jalal, Bushra Ahmed Alhammad., Khalid, F., Almutairi. and Adel M. Al-Saif. (2021). Biochar and its broad impacts in soil quality and fertility, nutrient leaching and crop productivity: A Review. Agronomy 11: doi:10.3390/agronomy11050993.
AL-Naily, M. A. H. and Basheer. A. A. (2020). The effect of some plant grouth retardants and water stress on some traits of sorghum (Sorghum biocolor L. Moench) stem. Plant Archives 19: 129-36.
Bashir, M. A., Wang, X., Naveed, M., Mustafa, A., Ashraf, S., Samreen, T., Nadeem, S.M., Jamil, M. (2021). Biochar mediated-alleviation of chromium stress and growth improvement of different maize cultivars in tannery polluted soils. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18: doi:10.3390/ ijerph18094461.
Divya Vani, B. R., Ramesh, N., Manimaran, S. and Thangavel, P. (2023). Effect of organic mulches and kaolin clay foliar spray on growth, yield attributes and yield of dry land maize (Zea mays). Crop Res. 58: 29-33.
Fouda, Sarah E. E., Fathy, M. A., El-Saadony, Ahmed, M., Saad, Samy M., Sayed Mohamed El-Sharnouby., Amira, M. El-Tahan. and Mohamed, T. El-Saadony (2022). Improving growth and productivity of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) using chitosan, tryptophan, and potassium silicate anti-transpirants under different irrigation regimes. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 29: 955-62. doi:10.1016/ j.sjbs.2021.10.007.
Hamzah, Z. and Shuhaimi, S. N. A. (2018). Biochar: effects on crop growth. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 215: doi:10.1088/1755-1315/215/1/012011.
Hong, Sun Hwa., Seung, Yeon Ham., Ji, Seul Kim., Im-Soon, Kim. and Eun, Young Lee. (2016). Application of sodium polyacrylate and plant growth-promoting bacterium, Micrococcaceae HW-2, on the growth of plants cultivated in the rooftop. Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. 113: 297-303. doi:10. 1016/j.ibiod.2016.04.018.
Kryuchkov, S. N., Solonkin, A. V. and Solomentseva, A. S. (2023). Testing of moisture-saturating polymers and synthetic mulching materials for growing fruit and berry crops. Res. Crop. 24: 527-35. doi:10.31830/2348-7542.2023.ROC-968.
Maki, H., Lynch, V., Ma, D., Tuinstra, M. R., Yamasaki, M. and Jin, J. (2023). Comparison of various nitrogen and water dual stress effects for predicting relative water content and nitrogen content in maize plants through hyperspectral imaging. AI 4: 692–705. doi:10.3390/ai4030036. 
Mazloom, Najmeh, Reza Khorassani, Gholam Hossein Zohury, Hojat Emami, Joann Whalen (2020). Lignin-based hydrogel alleviates drought stress in maize. Environ. Exp. Bot. 175: doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2020.104055.
Mohanapriya, B., Ravikesavan, R., Senthil, N., Iyanar, K., Senthil, A. and Sathya Sheela, K. R. V. (2023). Root phenological and physiological response of maize (Zea mays L.) for adaptation under drought stress at vegetative and reproductive stages​. Res. Crop. 24: 287-94.
Morsy, Ahmed Salah Mohamed. and Hani Mohamed Mehanna. (2022).  Beneficial effects of anti-transpirants on water stress tolerance in maize under different plant densities in newly reclaimed land. Bull. Natl. Res. Cent. 46: doi:10.1186/s42269-022-00934-6.
Mutar, S. S. and Basheer. A. A. (2019). The double effect of reducing transpiration and reversing infrared waves in some traits of growth and yield of the sunflower plant. Plant Archives 19: 3129-136.
Shrestha, J., Gurung, D. B. and Dhital, K. P. (2018). Agronomic performance of maize genotypes under high temperature condition. Farm. Manage. 3: 23-29.
UNWWD (2008). Water in a changing world. The United Nations World Water Development Report, Vol. 3. pp. 16.
Utobo, E. B., Ogbodo, E. N. and Nwogbaga, A. C. (2011). Techniques for extraction and quantification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. LARCJI 2: 68-78.
Yang, M., Dong, W., Cheng, R., Wang, H., Zhao, Z., Wang, F. and Wang, Y. (2022). Effect of highly efficient substrate modifier, super-absorbent polymer, on the performance of 585 the green roof. Sci. Total Environ. 806: doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150638.
Zhang,Xinrui, Lifei Yang, Weicong Wang,Yuzhou Xiang, Jingshuai Liu, Yulong An, Junming Shi, Houjuan Qi, Zhanhua Huang. (2024). Sodium alginate/sodium lignosulfonate hydrogel based on inert Ca2+ activation for water conservation and growth promotion. Environ. Res. 246doi:10.1016/ j.envres.2024.118144.

Global Footprints