Molecular characterization of Enterobcater ludwigii using 16S rDNA isolated from carrot, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Citation :- Molecular characterization of Enterobcater ludwigii using 16S rDNA isolated from carrot, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Res. Crop. 24: 555-558
MEHRNOUSH AMINISARTESHNIZI mehrnoush.aminisarteshnizi@ul.ac.za
Address : Aquaculture Research Unit, School of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa
Submitted Date : 29-03-2023
Accepted Date : 28-06-2023


Enterobacter is an exceptionally diverse genus of bacteria found in various habitats associated with soil, plants, and animals, including humans. Enterobacter species are gram-negative, motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is also described as non-spore-forming, flagella-containing, urease-positive, and lactose fermenting. Enterobacter includes several species, which can be risky pathogenic bacteria to vegetables, including carrots, and therefore have an impact on the fresh production of carrots. This study was conducted to isolate and identify Enterobacter from a carrot field in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Therefore, this molecular study was conducted in 2023 at Limpopo University to identify the bacterium associated with tomato filed from South Africa's soils using 16S rDNA marker. The DNA was extracted using the Chelex method. The bacterium was identified as Enterobacter. The Nblast analysis showed South African E. ludwigii has 98% similarity with a population from India (MW383808). Phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood placed this species with those molecularly identified as Enterobacter in the same clade with highly supported (100) bootstrap values. In conclusion, this species was identified using 16S rDNA properly. However, using other DNA markers for a better understanding of Enterobacter phylogeny is recommended.


Enterobacter bacterium phylogeny South Africa carrot 16S rDNA


Abolafia, J. and Shokoohi, E. (2017). Description of Stegelletina lingulata sp. n. (Nematoda, Rhabditida, Cephalobidae) from xeric environments in Iran. Zootaxa 4358: 462-70. doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4358.3.4.
Aminisarteshnizi, M. (2021a). Comparison of Discolaimium (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) from South Africa using 18S rDNA. Res. Crop. 22: 925-29
Aminisarteshnizi, M. (2021b). Lipid content in the juvenile, female and male of Acrobeles complexus nematode. Res. Crop. 22: 167-70.
Aminisarteshnizi, M. (2021c). Phylogenetic position of Aphelenchus avenae (Nematoda: Aphelenchidae) using 28S rDNA from South Africa. Res. Crop. 22: 692-95.
Aminisarteshnizi, M. (2022). Molecular characters of Serratia marcescens, a bacterium associated with spinach rhizosphere in Limpopo Province, South Africa, using 16S rDNA. Res.  Crop. 23: 437-41.
Davies, M., Galazzo, G., van Hattem, J. M., Arcilla, M. S., Melles, D. C., de Jong, M. D., Schultsz, C., Wolffs, P., McNally, A., Schaik, W. V. and Penders, J. (2022). Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroidaceae provide resistance to travel-associated intestinal colonization by multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli. Gut Microbes 14: doi: 10.1080/19490976.2022.2060676.
García-González, T., Sáenz-Hidalgo, H. K., Silva-Rojas, H. V., Morales-Nieto, C., Vancheva, T., Koebnik, R. and Ávila-Quezada, G. D. (2018). Enterobacter cloacae, an emerging plant-pathogenic bacterium affecting chili pepper seedlings. Plant Pathol. J. 34: 1-10.
Gupta, V., Sharma, S., Pal, K., Goyal, P., Agarwal, D. and Chander, J. (2021). Serratia, No longer an uncommon opportunistic pathogen - case series & review of literature. Infect. Disord. Drug Targets 21: doi: 10.2174/1871526521666210222125215.
Kumar, S., Stecher, G., Li, M., Knyaz, C. and Tamura, K. (2018). MEGA X: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis across computing platforms. Mole. Biol.  Evol. 35: 1547-49.
Shafeeq, S., Wang, X., Lünsdorf, H., Brauner, A. and Römling, U. (2020). Draft genome sequence of the urinary catheter isolate Enterobacter ludwigii CEB04 with high biofilm forming capacity. Microorganisms 8: doi: 10.3390/microorganisms8040522.
Shokoohi, E. (2021a). Morphological and molecular characters of Scutellonema brachyurus (Steiner, 1938) Andrassy, 1958 from South Africa. J. Nematol. 53: 1-13.
Shokoohi, E. (2021b). Morphological and molecular characterization of Boleodorus volutus Lima & Siddiqi, 1963 from South Africa with the first SEM observations of the species. Russ. J. Nematol. 29: 101-09.
Shokoohi, E. (2022a). Observation on Hemicriconemoides brachyurus (Loof, 1949) Chitwood & Birchfield, 1957 associated with grass in South Africa. Helminthologia 59: 210-16.
Shokoohi, E. (2022b). First report of Tripylina zhejiangensis associated with grassland in South Africa. Helminthologia 59: 311-16.
Shokoohi, E. and Abolafia, J. (2021). Redefining the predatory and cannibal nematode, Butlerius butleri Goodey, 1929 (Rhabditida: Diplogastridae), from South Africa, including the first SEM study. Nematol. 1: doi.org/10.1163/15685411-bja10089.
Shokoohi, E. and Abolafia, J. (2022). Morphological and molecular characterization of Hemicycliophora poranga Monteiro and Lordello, 1978 (Nematoda: Rhabditida: Hemicycliophoridae) from Iran and South Africa. Biologia 77: 709-20.
Shokoohi, E., Mehdizadeh, S., Amirzadi, N. and Abolafia, J. (2014). Four new geographical records of rhabditid nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida: Rhabditomorpha) from Iran with a note on the phylogenetic position of Pelodera. Russian J.  Nematol. 22: 49-66.
Shokoohi, E., Mehrabi-Nasab, A., Abolafia, J. and Holovachov, O. (2013). Study of the genus Plectus Bastian, 1865 (Nematoda: Plectidae) from Iran. Biologia 68: 1142-54.
Zhao, Y., Yuan, Z., Wang, S., Wang, H., Chao, Y., Sederoff, R. R., Sederoff, H., Yan, H., Pan, J., Peng, M., Wu, D., Borriss, R. and Niu, B. (2022) Gene sdaB is involved in the nematocidal activity of Enterobacter ludwigii AA4 against the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Front. Microbiol. 6: doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.870519.

Global Footprints