Effect of growth regulators and organic matter on the growth of Sappan wood seedlings (Caesalpinia sappan L.) 

Citation :- Effect of growth regulators and organic matter on the growth of Sappan wood seedlings (Caesalpinia sappan L.). Res. Crop. 24: 198-209
Address : Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran. Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang Km. 21, Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363, West Java, Indonesia
Submitted Date : 27-11-2022
Accepted Date : 10-01-2023


Sappan wood is a useful woody plant from Brazil that could possibly be utilized as a natural dye. The generative proliferation of Sappan wood is hindered by its sluggish seed germination (dormancy), which necessitates greater efforts to break seed dormancy through the use of plant growth regulator (PGR) and organic matter as a planting media mixture to improve seedling growth. This study was conducted during dry season from June to September 2022 at experimental field of Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran_with an aim to determine the effect of PGR (IAA, NAA, BAP) and organic matter (cow manure) on the growth of Sappan wood seeds. The design used was a randomized block design (RBD) with 14 combination treatments of different types of PGR with the concentration of 1.25 ppm and the use of organic matter that is cow manure (comparison 2:1) with three replications. The data obtained were then processed using one-way ANOVA and continued with the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at a 95% confidence level. The use of plant growth regulators (auxin and cytokinin) and organic matter affected the growth of Sappan wood seedlings, especially on the variables of seedling height (22.37 cm), stem diameter (3.89 mm), number of leaves (8.67), leaf area (104.84 cm2), root length (26.03 cm), dry weight of roots (1.15 g) and dry weight of the stem (1.6 g), but it was not significantly affected by the root volume. The combination of IAA+BAP 1.25 ppm and organic matter in the form of cow manure (2 : 1) was selected as the best treatment to increase the growth of Sappan wood seedlings.


Fertilizer plant growth regulator Sappan wood seedling 


Anas, Wiguna, G., Damayanti, F., Mubarok, S., Setyorini, D. and Ezura, H. (2022). Effect of Ethylene Sletr1-2 Receptor Allele on Flowering, Fruit Phenotype, Yield, and Shelf-Life of Four F1 Generations of Tropical Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Horticulturae 8(12): 1098. doi: 10.3390/horticulturae8121098
Athinarayanana, G., Ranjitsingh, A. J. A., Raja, A. U. and Padmalatha, C. (2017). Toxicological studies of Caesalpinia Sappan wood derived dye in Wister albino rats. Food Sci. and Human Wellness 6: 34-38. doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2016.10.004.
Elfiani and Jakoni (2015). Pengujuan daya berkecambah benih dan evaluasi struktur kecambah benih. Jurnal Dinamika Pertanian 30: 45-52.
El-Sayed, S. M. and El-Aziz, N. G. A. (2020). Effect of seed dormancy breaking and seed priming treatments on germination, seedling growth and chemical composition of Canna indica L. Middle East J. Agric. Res. 9: 857-70. doi.org/10.36632/mejar/2020.9.4.67.
Fricke, W. and Knipfer, T. (2017). Plant aquaporins and cell elongation. In : Plant Aquaporins, Signalling and Communication in Plants (Issue February, pp. 107-31). Springer International Publishing AG. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49395-4_5.
Gaspar, T., Kevers, C., Penel, C., Greppin, H., Reid, D. M. and Thorpe, T. A. (1996). Plant hormones and plant growth regulators in plant tissue culture. In vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant 32: 272-89.
Haiwei, S., Yongjie, M., Xiaofeng, L., Feng, C., Ying, Q., Wenyu, Y. and  Kai, S. (2016). The roles of auxin in seed dormancy and germination. Hereditas (Beijing) 38: 314-22. doi.org/10.16288/j.yczz.15-464.
Hasibuan, A. S. Z. (2015). Pemanfaatan Bahan Organik dalam Perbaikan Beberapa Sifat Tanah Pasir Pantai Selatan Kulon Progo. Planta Tropika: J. Agro Sci. 3: 31-40. doi.org/10.18196/pt.2015.037.31-40.
Hernawati, D., Hamdani, J. S., Sumadi and Mubarok, S. (2022). Production of G0 ‘median' potato seeds by stolons induction through pruning, nitrogen and cytokinin application. Asian J. Plant Sci. 21: 545-52. doi: 10.3923/ajps.2022.545.552
Hidayat, R. S. T., Mastuti, R. and Widiani, A. R. (2021). Efektivitas teknik skarifikasi untuk mematahkan dormansi benih kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Jurnal Littri. 27: 34-43.
Hidayati, R. I. and Subroto, G. (2018). Pertumbuhan bibit kopi (Coffea sp.) Hasil sambung hipokotil sebagai respon pemberian macam dan konsentrasi zat pengatur tumbuh. Agritrop 16. http://jurnal.unmuhjember.ac.id/index.php/AGRITROP.
Hilal, S., Parwata, I. G. M. A. and Santoso, B. B. (2018). Pertumbuhan bibit tanaman kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) asal biji pada berbagaifase pindah tanam semai. Jurnal Sains Teknologi & Lingkungan 4. doi.org/10.29303/jstl.v4i1.71.
José, J. F. B. S., Volpiano, C. G., Vargas, L. K., Hernandes, M. A. S., Lisboa, B. B., Schlindwein, G., Beneduzi, A., Longoni, L. S. and Sampaio, J. A. T. (2019). Influence of hot water on breaking dormancy, incubation temperature and rhizobial inoculation on germination of Acacia mearnsii seeds. Australian Forestry 82. doi.org/10.1080/ 00049158.2019.1636350.
Kovaleva, L. V., Voronkov, A. S. and Zakharova, E. V. (2015). Role of auxin and cytokinin in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in the in vitro germinating male gametophyte of petunia. Russian J. Plant Physiol. 62: 179-86. doi.org/10.1134/S1021443715020107.
Kurniati, Abu, A., Irmayanti and Aisyah (2019). Natural dyes from Sappan wood  (Biancaea sappan) wood in Sutera. Int. Conf. on Education, Science and Technology 1387: 1-5. doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1387/1/012001.
Leelakhachonchit, P., Phongprai, R., Jiennumwong, W., Nakthong, C., Bangphoomi, N., Leesombun, A., Thongjuy, O. and Boonmasawai, S. (2021). The effects of heartwood extracts from Biancaea sappan L. against coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS) and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical mastitis in dairy goats. 14: 31-46.
Liu, X., Li, Y. and Zhong, S. (2017). Interplay between light and plant hormones in the control of arabidopsis seedling chlorophyll biosynthesis. Frontiers in Plant Sci. 8: 1-6. doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01433.
Liu, X., Zhang, H., Zhao, Y., Feng, Z., Li, Q., Yang, H., Luan, S. and Li, J. (2013). Auxin controls seed dormancy through stimulation of abscisic acid signalling by inducing ARF-mediated ABI3 activation in Arabidopsis. PNAS 10: 15485-90. doi.org/10.1073/ pnas.1304651110.
Meena, A. L., Jha, P., Dotaniya, M. L., Kumar, B., Meena, B. P. and Jat, R. L. (2019). Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization as influenced by type of organic residues and soil contact variation in vertisol of central India. Agric. Res. 9: 232-40. doi.org/10.1007/s40003-019-00425-7.
Mekala, K. and Radha, R. (2021). A review on Sappan wood–A therapeutic dye yielding tree. Res. J. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 7: 227-31. doi.org/ 10.5958/0975-4385.2015.00035.7.
Miller, J. O. (2016). Soil pH affects nutrient availability. University of Maryland Extension, Fact Sheet (FS-1054). pp. 1-5.
Miransari, M. and Smith, D. L. (2014). Plant hormones and seed germination. Environmental and Experimental Botany 99: 110-21. doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2013.11.005.
Mubarok, S., Ezura, H., Rostini, N., Suminar, E. and Wiguna, G. (2019). Impacts of Sletr1-1 and Sletr1-2 mutations on the hybrid seed quality of tomatoes. J. Integr. Agric. 18: 1170-76. doi: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62614-6.
Mubarok, S., Fauzi, A. A., Nuraini, A., Rufaidah, F. and Qonit, M. A. H. (2020). Effect of benzyl amino purine and 1-methylcyclopropene in maintaining rooting quality of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv.‘White Fiji’) cuttings. Res. Crop. 21: 141-50. doi : 10.31830/2348-7542.2020.024.
Mubarok, S., Wicaksono, F. Y., Nuraini, A., Rahmat, B. P. N. and Budiarto, R. (2022a). Agronomical characteristics of sweet corn under different plant growth regulators during the dry season. Biodiversitas J. Biol. Divers. 23: 3091-98. doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d230636.
Mubarok, S., Nuraini, A., Sumadi, S., and Hamdani, J. S. (2022b). Paclobutrazol and benzylaminopurine improve potato yield grown under high temperatures in lowland and medium land. Open Agric. 7: 882-88. doi: 10.1515/opag-2022-0138.
Munie, S. A., Habrová, H., Houšková, K. and Karas, L. (2022). Effect of different pre-sowing treatments to break seed dormancy and seed collection methods on the germination of Dracaena steudneri Schweinf. Ex Engl. Forests 13: 1-12.
Murrinie, E. D., Yudono, P., Purwantoro, A. and Sulistyaningsih, E. (2017). Determination of physiological maturity of wood-apple [Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle] seed. Res. Crop. 18: 642-49.
Mutammimah, U., Minardi, S. and Suntoro (2020). Organic amendments effect on the soil chemical properties of marginal land and soybean yield. J. Degrade. Min. Land Manage. 7: 2263-68. doi.org/10.15243/jdmlm.
Neina, D. (2019). The role of soil pH in plant nutrition and soil remediation. Applied and Environmental Soil Sci. 3. doi.org/10.1155/2019/5794869.
Nirmal, N. P., Rajput, M. S., Prasad, R. G. S. V. and Ahmad, M. (2015). Brazilin from Caesalpinia Sappan heartwood and its pharmacological activities : A review. Asian Pacific J. Trop. Med. 8: 421-30. doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.05.014.
Önemli, F. (2004). The effects of soil organic matter on seedling emergence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Plant, Soil and Environment 50: 494-99.
Oziegbe, M., Faluyi, J. O. and Oluwaranti, A. (2010). Effect of seed age and soil texture on the germination of some Ludwigia species (Onagraceae) in Nigeria. Acta Botanica Croatica 69: 249-57.
Penn, C. J. and Camberato, J. J. (2019). A critical review on soil chemical processes that control how soil pH affects phosphorus availability to plants. Agriculture (Switzerland) 9: 1-18. doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9060120.
Phumthum, M., Nguanchoo, V. and Balslev, H. (2021). Medicinal plants used for treating mild COVID-19 symptoms among Thai Karen and Hmong. Frontiers in P. 12: 1-9. doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.699897.
Polta, A. K. and Subagiono (2018). Pengaruh pemberian beberapa jenis pupuk kandang terhadap pertumbuhan bibitkopi varietas Robusta (Coffea robusta). Jurnal Sains Agro. 03: 1-9.
Rahmat, B. P. N., Octavianis, G., Budiarto, R., Jadid, N., Widiastuti, A., Matra, D. D., Ezura, H. and Mubarok, S. (2023). SlIAA9 Mutation Maintains Photosynthetic Capabilities under Heat-Stress Conditions. Plants 12: doi: 10.3390/ plants12020378.
Reed, R. C., Bradford, K. J. and Khanday, I. (2022). Seed germination and vigour: Ensuring crop sustainability in a changing climate. Heredity 128: 450-59. doi.org/10.1038/s41437-022-00497-2.
Sari, R. and Suhartati (2016). Sappan wood  (Caesalpinia sappan L.): tumbuhan herbal kaya antioksidan. Info Teknis EBONI 13: 57-67.
Setiawati, T., Ayalla, A., Nurzaman, M. and Mutaqin, A. Z. (2018). Influence of light intensity on leaf photosynthetic traits and alkaloid content of kiasahan (Tetracera scandens L.). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 166: 1-7. doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/166/1/012025.
Settharaksa, S., Monton, C. and Charoenchai, L. (2019). Optimization of Caesalpinia sappan L. heartwood extraction procedure to obtain the highest content of brazilin and greatest antibacterial activity. J. Integrative Medicine 17: 351-58. doi.org/10.1016/ j.joim.2019.05.003.
Sikhondze, T., Nxumalo, K. A., Masarirambi, M. T., Wahome, P. K. and Zwane, M. G. (2020). The effects of pre-germination treatments on seed germination and growth of wild guavas in the Kingdom of Eswatini, Southern Africa. Asian J. Agric. and Hortic. Res. 5: 28-36. doi.org/10.9734/ajahr/2020/v5i130041.
Soltani, E., Baskin, C. C. and Gonzalez-Andujar, J. L. (2022). An overview of environmental cues that affect germination of non-dormant seeds. Seeds 1: 146-51.
Staden, J., Stirk, W., Novak, O. and Strnad, M. (2010). The role of cytokinins in seed germination. South Afr. J. Bot. 76: doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2010.02.050.
Suminar, E., Budiarto, R., Nuraini, A., Mubarok, S. and Ezura, H. (2022). Morpho-physiological responses of iaa9 tomato mutants to different levels of PEG simulated drought stress. Biodiversitas J. Biol. Divers. 23: 3115-26. doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d230639.
Suwan, T., Wanachantararak, P. and Khongkhunthian, S. (2018). Antioxidant activity and potential of Caesalpinia sappan aqueous extract on synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics 12: 259-66. https://doi.org/10.5582/ddt.2018.01059.
Syamsunarno, M. R. A. A., Safitri, R. and Kamisah, Y. (2021). Protective effects of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. and its bioactive compounds on cardiovascular organs. 12: 1-14. doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.725745.
Vardhani, A. K. (2019). Caesalpinia sappan L : Review article. Proc. of International Conference on Applied Science and Health 4: 300-05.
Wang, Y., Chen, Y. F. and Wu, W. H. (2021). Potassium and phosphorus transport and signalling in plants. J. Integrative Plant Biol. 63: 34-52. doi.org/10.1111/jipb.13053.
Wróbel, S., Jacek, K. and Treder, K. (2017). Effect of growth regulators and ethanol on termination of dormancy in potato tubers. Am. J. Potato Res. 94: 544-55. doi.org/10.1007/s12230-017-9592-2.
Yan, M., Zhang, L., Ren, Y., Zhang, T., Zhang, S., Li, H., Chen, Y. and Zhang, S. (2022). The higher water absorption capacity of small root system improved the yield and water use efficiency of maize. Plants 11. doi.org/10.3390/plants11172300.
Yudiati, E., Djunaedi, A., Adziana, D. S. K., Nisa, A. A. and Alghazeer, R. (2021). Improving production, chlorophyll a and carotenoids contents of Gracilaria sp. with liquid organic fertilizer from alginate waste. Ilmu Kelautan: Indonesian J. Marine Sci. 26: doi.org/10.14710/IK.IJMS.26.1.1-6.

Global Footprints