Factor of adaptation in agriculture of the Lower Volga region

DOI: 10.31830/2348-7542.2022.1009    | Article Id: 1009 | Page : 595-601
Citation :- Factor of adaptation in agriculture of the Lower Volga region. Res. Crop. 23: 595-601
A. M. BELYAKOV AND M. V. NAZAROVA dokbam49@mail.ru
Address : Federal State Budget Scientific Institution, «Federal Scientific Centre of Agroecology, Complex Melioration and Protective Afforestation of the Russian Academy of Sciences» , (FSC of Agroecology RAS), 400062 Volgograd, Russia


Since the inception of agriculture, it has been adapting for various natural and, above all, soil and climatic conditions. The geographical position of Russia and its vast expanses contribute to the use of various farming systems and agricultural technologies.  For a long time in areas of insufficient moisture, systematic work was carried out to expand the diversity of crops, as a result, new crops appeared on the fields, such as triticale, chickpeas, safflower, spring and winter camelina, coriander, oil flax, which have positively proven themselves in the region. A significant contribution to the adaptability system is made by crop breeding, a vivid example of this is the promotion of winter wheat in the south-east of the Russian Federation. An adaptive cultivation methods are aimed at moisture accumulation and include soil protection tillage with stubble, mulching of the soil surface, creation of vegetable wings, snow retention, direct sowing, which provides additional moisture reserves in the meter soil layer up to 30-40 mm and an increase in crop productivity up to 6-8 centners / ha in grain units. At present, an important role belongs to new technologies for the use of symbiotic microorganisms that improve soil fertility. Zonal farming systems began to be practiced (since the 80s of the last century), including the system of dry farming in the Volgograd region, which determines the share of pure fallow in the amount of 20-24% of the arable land.  In the modern system of agriculture, a worthy place is occupied by the forest reclamation complex, which performs an important protective and ecological function of preserving and restoring degraded territories and soils. As a result of the research, it was found that farming systems and crop cultivation technologies should contain the main elements or factors of adaptability, such as the arrangement of the territory (size and configuration of fields), a balanced proportion of the main categories of agricultural land (the structure of agricultural land), typification of arable land by slopes and humus content in the soil, adaptive crop rotation (by the number of fields, a set of crops, the method of alternating crops in space and time), the recommended amount of total forest cover, taking into account the zonal aspect , justified type and design of field shelterbelts, which ultimately ensures the formation of an ecologically balanced agricultural landscape.


Adaptation agricultural technologies agriculture agro-landscapes farming system 


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